CGM conceptualized and oversaw the review. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Plain Language Summary Language: Accessed 21 July More research is needed to understand better the short and long term consequences of the virginity exam on the examinee. Available editions United Kingdom.
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Six studies [ 4 , 6 , 14 , 32 , 33 , 35 ] provided data from interviews and focus group discussions and two studies [ 30 , 34 ] provided survey data from healthcare professionals. All eight studies were level III evidence [ 4 , 6 , 14 , 30 , 32 — 35 ]. Virginity examinations are most commonly performed on unmarried females, often without consent or in situations where individuals are unable to give consent [ 1 ]. Three themes were constructed from the data:
Your email address will not be published. Virginity testing is performed in various countries for reasons that vary by region. The idea of virginity is firmly anchored in religion and influenced by a variety of social forces that have led to its circulation across cultures for centuries. Normal hymen examination findings are likely to occur in those with and without a history of vaginal penetration [ 22 — 30 ]. This review searched ten different databases, and found 17 reports on virginity testing. Virginity Testing Beyond a Medical Examination. Appendix BLabels and Logos.
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Virgin Envy: The Cultural Insignificance of the Hymen - Google Livros
Virginity exams also commonly resulted in psychological trauma with long-lasting adverse effects, including but not limited to anxiety, depression, loss of self-esteem, and suicidal ideation. Medical examination of the "intact" hymen. This role included the design and management of research projects on the environmental impacts and ecodesign of buildings, products and packaging. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.
Preserving the ‘purity’ of Zulu girls